El libro inacabado. Una propuesta gráfica para narrar acontecimentos sociales complejos
Por: María Sol Talin // MDG
Narrating social events implies, always, a subjective position. Firstly, this (sometimes ) prevents from having a great variety of stories, simultaneous voices. An example of this is the recent history of the Dictatorship in Argentina in 1976. The way in which discourses are tackled show us a strong link between political agents who circulate these pieces of information and the ideological aspect to which historical teaching are inclined to children nowadays.
The approach of persuasive discourses has as its aim to“lead us to defining conclusions”, affirms Eco in his book Obra Abierta (1932 ) and, continues, “we are supposed to desire, to understand, to be afraid of, to love and not to love”. (page 280) This quote makes us think that this kind of discourses apply control in our own decisions . Also, to think about the function of these practices in government structures.
Persuasive discourse as a cultural tool comes from the greek society in the Aristoteles Republic; according to Eco, this is not a coincidence to be related to the appearance of democracy: a dictator does not need to persuade the society because he dominates them, but democracy implies freedom of choice.
Persuasion itself is not something bad, in some cases is really necessary- Eco affirms- persuasive discourses are used most of the time. However, when it is the only way culture is reproduced, per- suasion becomes a failure. That is to say, when it is the only and truly discourse that cannot be questioned.
In this sense, Eco proposes to take into account the possibility of going through persuasive discourses and direct us to open discourses. He defines discourses as ambiguous, that they do not define reality in an unambiguous and already made way. This idea of producing discourses proposes a critical reader/author, who is able to have his own understanding of history.
The dimension of open discourses allow us to explore multiple voices: different and opposed that coexist in culture. This allow us to think from the individual constructions, since individuals are able to create their own discoveries and understandings. This is an inclusive and collaborative opportunity to create.
The opportunities offered by this model place the receiver in a situation of responsibility in his/her interpretation and deduction of a work. “The open discourse is an appeal to responsibility, to an individual choice, a challenge and an incentive to taste, imagination and intelligence”. Eco, 1932 : 280)
Besides, it offers the opportunity to position the reader as an author of his/ her own discursively. A person who is able to take part in the historical con- text, from his voice, his rereading and his critical point of view.
One of the aims of this project is to make history more attractive to young people, without simplifications or without losing the complexity of the historical approach. While dictator- ship, a complex situation in history, is a knowledge that could be biased, reduced or simplified from the ways and contexts in which social events are communicated.