The degree in Biotechnology intends to give students solid scientific and technical expertise and comprehension in order to integrate the labor market for biotechnology-based companies (food processing, marine, pharmaceutical, environmental, or similar), as well as generate interest in pursuing studies at the 2nd cycle. Its multidisciplinary nature, including in the area of management, contributes to the development of skills that enable the development of entrepreneurial initiatives, as well as strengthen the link between applied research and commercialization of new products.
A degree in Biotechnology aims to confer students with autonomy, critical thinking, communication skills and creativity, allowing them to successfully design and develop any professional project or scientific and technological research in the field of Biotechnology
This proposed study cycle provides students with the knowledge and technical and scientific skills to perform their duties and arouse interest in pursuing a scientific research or entrepreneurial career. The first semesters are organized to give basic and transversal skills within biotechnology, whereas in later semesters is given special emphasis to areas of specialization. Teamwork, autonomy, and communication to general public and peers skills will be developed through the discussion of case studies, presentations in oral, panel and report format of results of experimental and research work. At the end of the course students will develop a scientific project in biotechnology, inserted in R&D projects arising within the research unit recognized by FCT – GIRM / IPL.
Integral Calculus in IR 1.1. Primitive: definition and properties; Primitivation Methods 1.2. Defined integral: definition and properties; Fundamental theorem of integral calculus; Integral Calculus Applications
Differential Equations. 2.1. Basic Concepts and Terminology 2.2. 1st order ordinary EDs and arbitrary order linear ordinary EDs 2.3. Applications.
Functions of Multiple Real Variables 3.1. Definitions 3.2. Partial derivatives 3.3. Differentiability 3.4. Extremes 3.5 Multiple integrals (double and triple); Multiple integrals over limited regions 3.6. Variable Change 3.7. applications
Classical Mechanics 2.1. Kinetics; One-dimensional motion and circular motion; 2.2. Dynamics: Newton’s Laws; Gravitational, frictional and inertial force; 2.3. Work and Energy: work, power, kinetic energy and potential; 2.4. Fluids: Pascal and Archimedes Principles, Bernoulli Equations, Laminar and Turbulent Flow;
Notions of Thermodynamics 3.1. Zero law of thermodynamics, temperature, thermal equilibrium; 3.2. First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, Work, heat transfer; 3.3. Second law of thermodynamics; Heat / work conversion; Carnot and entropy;
Notions of Electricity and Magnetism 4.1. Electric Field, direct current, Ohm’s law; 4.2. Magnetic and electromagnetic field, alternating current, electromagnetic waves.
P1. DNA and RNA structure. Chromosomes, chromatin and nucleosome. P2. DNA Replication P3. Mutations and DNA repair mechanisms. P4. Genetic recombination. P5. RNA transcription and processing. P6. MRNA translation. P7. Regulation of gene expression
Background: Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering
Bioreactors 2.1. Stoichiometry and kinetics of microbial processes 2.2. Type geometries and modes of operation in bioreactors; 2.3. Mixing and Shaking; Mass transfer, heat transfer and sterilization 2.4. Scale up and Scale down
Biocatalysis 4.1. Enzymatic Kinetics 4.2. Cellular enzymes and biocatalysts and immobilization methods. 4.3. Biocatalysis in unconventional media.
[P1.] Introduction: scope of microbiology applied to Biotechnology; industrial microbiology versus biotechnology [P2.] Groups of microorganisms most important in industrial microbiology / biotechnology [P3.] Basic requirements of microorganisms: culture media; carbon and nitrogen sources; alternative raw materials. [P4.] Fermentative processes; upstream and downstream processisng. [P5.] Microbiology as a tool in different areas of biotechnology: food, environmental, industrial, marine.
1 – Fundamental concepts and application areas of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2 – Fundamental research lines in pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2.1 Production of recombinant therapeutic molecules: small molecules and natural products, hormones and cytokines, enzymes. 2.2 Monoclonal antibodies (therapeutic and diagnostic) and vaccines. 2.3 Gene and cellular therapy. 2.4 Biomaterials and tissue engineering. 2.5 Application in diagnosis. 3 – Industrial development, production process and validation of new biopharmaceuticals. Biosynthesis of drugs by fermentation and bio-transformation. 4 – Legislative and economic considerations. Future perspectives.
Marine microbiology 1.1 Introduction to marine microbiology 1.2 Methods in marine microbiology 1.3 Physiology of marine microorganisms 1.4 Role of microorganisms in oceanic processes 1.5 Genomics of marine microorganisms
Marine bioprospecting 2.1 Isolation of marine natural products 2.2 Bioactive and biomaterial compounds of the marine environment 2.3 Assays for detection of enzymes and bioactive molecules
Sustainable growth of marine organisms 3.1 Microalgae and macroalgae cultivation 3.2 Cultivation of other marine organisms
Introduction to immunology. Cells and organs of the immune system.
T cells and B cells: selection, maturation and activation.
Specific and non-specific defense mechanisms. 3.1.Inflammatory response. Complement system. Interferon. 3.2. Cellular immunity and humoral immunity.
Major histocompatibility complex: heredity, processing and antigen presentation.
Pathophysiology of the immune system: health and disease. 6.1.Inflammation and anti-inflammatory mediators. 6.2.Tolerance, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity; Immunodeficiencies. 6.3. Transplantation and immune base of rejection. 6.4.Cancer and immune system. 6.5.Immunomodulation and immunotherapy.
Basic principles of plant cell and tissue culture: historical perspective and study methods in plant biotechnology.
In vitro plant culture: totipotence and competence; vegetative multiplication, growth regulators, culture media and environmental conditions of culture. Plant cloning – meristema propagation and organogenesis: meristema types, objectives and limitations.
Cell suspensions and somatic embryogenesis: types of embryogenesis, phases and induction. Pollen embryogenesis and haploid production. Cell suspensions and production of secondary metabolites. Protoplasts and somatic hybridization.
Genetic manipulation and plant breeding. Genetically modified plants
Research and update the state of the art on the theme 1.1. Literature search in the area of biotechnology 1.2. Prepare a monograph about the state of art of a given area of biotechnology
Planning and development of a scientific project in Biotechnology 2.1. Definition of working hypotheses 2.2. Drafting and planning the steps in the development of a project 2.3. Organizing the work in the laboratory 2.4. Presentation of the preliminary scientific project in the form of seminars. 2.5. Planning of the experimental design. 2.6. Presentation of preliminary results of the scientific project in the form of a seminar.
Writing the final report. 3.1. Writing a report with proper structure / formatting and discussion of the results obtained comparing them to the current state of the art.
Presentation and discussion of final project 4.1. Defence and discussion of the written report and the oral presentation of the proposed project
The Areas / Functions eligible for the internship are all related to the Biotechnology topics covered in the other curricular units of the degree and which fit the requirements of the regulation of curricular and extracurricular internships of ESTM (Regulation No. 1087/2016). According to each specific company, the registration / participation in the tasks should pay attention to the following aspects:
Research and update the state of the art on the topic proposed in the work plan.
Requirements, challenges and particular aspects of the scope of activities performed